A tornado can be defined as a ferociously revolving pillar of air that is in contact with the surface ground and a thundercloud or, in exceptional instances the bottom of a thundercloud. They are frequently called twisters or cyclones although the word cyclone usually means any closed low-pressure movement. Tornadoes are found in many shapes and sizes, but they are mostly in the form of an observable compressed cone, whose contracted tip is upon the earth and is usually encircled by a screen of rubble and dirt. Most tornadoes have wind speeds of around 110 miles per hour and are about 250 feet wide, and the move a few miles before finally winding down.
The most violent tornadoes move at wind speeds of more than 300 miles per hour, are more than two miles wide and touch the ground for several miles of miles. Different types of tornadoes include the landspout, multiple vortex tornado, and waterspout. Waterspouts can be recognized by an amplified funnel-shaped wind stream connecting it to a massive large fluffy cloud. They have generally identified as no superior porous tornadoes that are created over large swathes of water, but there is disagreement as to whether they can be labeled as proper tornadoes. These amplified columns of air are frequently created in tropical areas close to the equator and are not as frequent at higher latitudes.
Other tornado-like phenomena that are naturally common include the gustnado, dust devil, fire whirls, and steam devil; powerful downward winds are frequently mistaken as tornadoes, though their action is very different. Tornadoes have been seen on every continent except Antarctica, but most tornadoes take place in the Tornado Alley region of the United States, although they can occur nearly anywhere in North America. They also sporadically take place in south-central and eastern Asia, northern and east-central South America, Southern Africa, northwestern and southeast Europe, western and southeastern Australia, and New Zealand
Tornadoes can be perceived before or as they take place through the use of Pulse-Doppler radar by identifying patterns in space and ratio of reflected and incident energy data, such as hook echoes or debris balls, as well as through the efforts of storm spotters. There are several scales for rating the strength of tornadoes. The Fujita scale rates tornadoes have been identified by damage caused and have been replaced in some countries by the updated Enhanced Fujita Scale. An F0 or EF0 tornado, the weakest category, damages trees, but not buildings or other solid objects. An F5 or EF5 tornado, the strongest category, rips buildings off their foundations and can deform large skyscrapers.