Short-term memory is said to hold a small amount of information for about 20 seconds and can be described as the capacity for holding in mind, in an active, highly available state, a small amount of information. The information held in short-term memory may be a recently processed sensory contribution and can be items recently retrieved from long-term memory or the result of recent mental processing. Working memory refers to the system that is accountable for the temporary reasoning and dispensation of new and previously stored information which is an important process for a person’s way of thinking, understanding, knowledge, and education including memory updating.
Short Term Memory (STM) and Working Memory (WM) are separate hypothetical principles that affect perception and behavior and are presumed to reflect dissimilar or diverse cognitive functions. However, there is a crucial role for the responsibilities that determine STM or WM (simple and complex span tasks, respectively) and for the cognitive charge reflected by matters like attention and processing speed that may vary between and within these tasks. These conceptual issues are based on several abstract models for the relation between STM and WM
The poor performance of adults on their working memory capacity shows an unambiguous inhibitory deficit as opposed to a general limitation capacity. This is known as inhibitory deficit hypothesis. The strategic difference in aging means that some people age in good health while others show visible signs of deterioration. Provide one instance of evidence against a strategic difference to explain age‐related deficits. Age-related deficits mean the performance of elderly participants is significantly poorer than that of younger participants in all physical and mental tasks including reaction time and motor functions.
Episodic memory is a category of long-term memory that involves the recollection of specific events, situations, and experiences, a first kiss, a list of words. It also involves memory of a location and time that the event occurred. There are significant aging effects to episodic memory because “it is more complex and prone to distortion” It is believed “that the complexity of episodic memory is why this type of memory tends to deteriorate noticeably as we age. Semantic memory is not localized to a specific area of the brain and refers to a portion of long-term memory that processes ideas and concepts that are not drawn from personal experience. It is believed that older adults do not suffer semantic memory loss as part of the normal aging process. Semantic memory assists a person to understand concepts, beliefs, physical characteristics, origin, and history.