One of the potential barriers observed in user involvement is the lack of awareness of local services. Moreover, the physical access to the mental health services can also be a challenge for minority groups.
It refers to the cultural and structural institutions imposed on individuals, such as ethnicity and gender. The social barriers influence the capability of individuals and groups required to be involved in services.
The BME communities are indicated to experience various barriers in accessing the health care services. For instance, Asian women experience critical stigmatic situations as they were isolated from their families residing in Asia, resulting in a crucial problematic relationship with their partners.
There also exist different cultural barriers in approaching mental health services. For instance, the majority of the parenting support programs are initiated by white middle-class values that do not confirm the recognition of diverse cultural approaches towards child-raising.
The recovery approach, recovery model, or Psychological Recovery to substance dependence or mental disorder supports and highlights the individual’s potential for recovery. The stages of recovery are considered as a personal journey, rather than an approach towards set outcomes. It implies to the establishment of positive attitudes and perceptions among the patients with mental illness, such as coping skills, social inclusion, empowerment, supportive relationships, sense of self, a secure base and meaning. Figure 1 elaborates the sections of recovery model involved in the recovery of patients. It proposes different challenges and questions, which implies that people with mental health problems possess similar intentions as normal people. This model helps people with mental illness in accomplishing their goals by utilizing their skills and expanding other people’s support towards them.
The term social exclusion refers to “a process by which certain groups are systematically disadvantaged because they are discriminated against on the basis of their ethnicity, race, religion, sexual orientation, caste, descent, gender, age, disability, HIV status, migrant status or where they live”. It is a leading process toward a more difficult state for susceptible groups as well as individuals which consequently obstruct the accomplishment of functioning. The three concise models of social exclusion include “Moral Underclass Discourse” (MUD), “Redistribution Discourse” (RED), and “Social Integration Discourse”. The oppression in social perspectives is considered as man-made dominations and strengths conformism towards the social norms. The social oppression is quite frequent in mental health care systems while managing with the individual’s behaviors and attitudes deviated from the normal margin of cultural and social expectations. The poverty gives rise to the social exclusion, otherness, and stigmatization in the individuals. In this regard, a number of policies were introduced in order to minimize the social exclusion among individuals in the community.